If the director of this service so authorizes, the document is transmitted to the Minister of Justice, who judges its legality, and then to the services of the Federal Register, which must verify its form before sending it to sign it to the President`s Office. However, since this procedure is the result of an executive procedure, it is not applicable to the President, which means that he can depart from it without calling into question the legality of his measure. See K.R. Mayer, With the Stroke of a Pen, op. cit. Cit., p. 60 qq.  Ibid. The executive order states: “By the authority conferred upon me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including Section 203 of the Powers in the Event of International Economic Crisis Act (50 U.S.C.
1702) … and Section 301 of the Emergency Act (50 U.S.C. 1631)” However, it is common to find that executive orders operate in the field of national security. See R. Alford, Permanent State of Emergency. Unchecked Executive Power and the Demise of the Rule of Law, Kingston: McGill-Queen`s University Press, 2017, p. 140 sqq.  See z.B., United States v. Alaska, 521 U.P. 1, 44 (June 19, 1997).
The court ruled: “We conclude that Congress ratified the terms of the 1923 Executive Order in Section 11(b) of the Status of States Act.” For another example, see in particular Propper v. Clark, 337 U.P. 472 (June 20, 1949). With regard to the question of the counter-capacity of executive orders, it was necessary to separate those that had been adopted on the basis of article II of the Constitution and those that had been adopted pursuant to the law. For the first category, U.S. courts generally hold that individuals are not allowed to seek the execution of an executive order against the president, the administration, or another individual.